The problem of the interaction of technological and economic transformations
The article discusses issues related to the paradigm of independent research of technological and economic transformations. The author comes to the conclusion that in modern conditions the technological innovation process cannot be fully incorporated into economic activity. In this regard, special attention is paid to the issue of combining economic and non-economic regulation of technological innovations in the present period and in the future.
Keywords: technological transformation, economic transformation, innovative firms, high-tech corporations, side effects, capital market, new technological structure
The role of technological progress in the development of the economy and society as a whole is increasingly intensified. This increases the importance of distinguishing between economic changes caused by technological shifts, on the one hand, and other economic changes, primarily caused by institutional shifts, on the other.
From the perspective of the theory of transformation, the real application of technology is the result of mapping technological space onto the economic field. At the same time, the vector of technological development itself inevitably develops under the influence of demand factors in the economic system. The study of the interaction of technological and economic transformational changes is definitely a poorly studied or, in any case, insufficiently studied problem, so we will pay special attention to it.
On the theoretical interpretation of technological transformation. First, let us dwell, at least briefly, on the very phenomenon of technological transformation, which is usually ignored in economic literature.
The main feature of the process of technological transformation, of course, is the change of technology achieved as a result of innovation – innovation. In most studies, technological innovations rightly distinguish between ordinary, so-called routine, and fundamental. The former refers to innovations that ensure continuous improvement of technologies and the technical base of production and consumption. In contrast, fundamental innovations, usually of a discrete nature, mediate a change in the prevailing generations of engineering and technology. Of course, in real practices, hybrid innovations are also widespread, combining the properties of routine and fundamental innovations.
We cannot ignore the strong difference in the degree of significance of technological changes in different areas of social activity, both economic and non-economic. Accordingly, structural technological shifts, which are the results of the transformation of the genus under consideration, are extremely diverse.
At the level of social systems, the most obvious result of technological transformation are structural shifts in terms of the extent of the spread of existing technological structures . Such quantitative structural changes inevitably lead to qualitative, irreversible changes. Ultimately, there is a fundamental technological transformational shift, which in its significance can be assessed as historical.
Based on specific studies, it is apparently legitimate to conclude that the process of radical technological modernization is distinguished by a multi-stage character. So, referring to the historical experience of Russia and a number of European countries, at least three stages of the actual industrial technological modernization can be distinguished . The first is pre-industrial modernization, in its content corresponding to classical modernization during the Industrial Revolution; the second is early industrial modernization in the 19th century; the third – late industrial modernization at the beginning of the last century.
One cannot ignore the fact that the timing of industrial modernization-transformation significantly differed in different countries. This was most clearly expressed in the phenomenon of long-term “delay” of radical technological upheavals in most countries, including Germany and Russia, relative to the leading countries (Great Britain, and then the USA).
As specific historical studies show, the trajectories of technological transformations are in many ways similar to the trajectories of intra-systemic institutional transformations that have taken place in most countries. Compressed in time, the spread of fundamental, revolutionary innovations follows a long period of relatively moderate in intensity, albeit far from uneven technological shifts. And it continues until the onset of a new stage of transformation of the type in question.
At the same time, there is every reason to believe that the duration of the stages of modern technological transformation – post-industrialization is fundamentally reduced. In the context of the internationalization of scientific and technological progress, this applies to almost all countries of the world.